Living in Space

Space -- the final frontier! Well. For a small part of humankind, at least. Out of the eight billion humans that constitute the extent of our species in the Milky Way, five billion live on Earth, most of the other three on Earth-like worlds, and few of them have any desire to leave their cradle. In total, less than 5% of humanity has embraced the spacer lifestyle, inhabiting stations, spaceships and underground settlements on moons or planetoids.

Still, four hundred million spacers is a whole lot of people, and some of these communities have been around for almost two centuries -- the oldest off-world settlement is the lunar city of Shackleton crater, which recently celebrated the 175th anniversary of its foundation. How did spacers adapt so well to their new environment? Such was the question journalist Peter Vangelis tasked himself with answering in this pop-science book, as he took a shuttle to the nearest space station, the venerable Nana Buluku Orbital in low Earth orbit.

Instead, he found a wild and somewhat inconvenient truth -- spacers did not really adapt. Because space sucks. The list of adverse health effects zero-g and radiation have on the human body takes a good third of the book -- because they are quite numerous. Zero-g puts a heavy toll on pretty much every single part of the human body, from the obvious (bone and muscle loss, the face becoming puffier), to the lesser known (spacers have skyrocketing rates of eye diseases due to issues with the pressure in their cornea) and the frankly arcane (the gut microbiome really doesn't enjoy the absence of gravity, and it turns out neurons don't either). Radiation exposure especially doesn't only increase the rates of tumours, but it also has cascading impacts on every part of the human body. And treating wounds? Oh, yes, blood doesn't flow outside the wounds, it has to be mechanically pumped out. And anaesthesia doesn't work as well as it should, or in some cases, doesn't work at all.

Space really sucks. The whole universe wants you dead. So what did we do about it?

Not much,
in the grand scheme of things, and it's not by lack of trying -- pretty much all medical techniques, with the notable exception of full genetic engineering (the voluntary creation of human subspecies remains a touchy and complex political topic) have been mobilised to solve the plight of spacers. With the hindsight of two centuries of continued space presence, modern technology has managed to mitigate the most grievous impacts somewhat. After all, most spacers live long and fulfilling lives, their life expectancy in good health is only slightly below average (115 years instead of 121 for the terrestrial human cohort) and, odd skin colours notwithstanding, they look broadly human. Radiation proved to be less of a problem than anticipated, and modern treatments are very good at handling cancer, especially in the preventative phase. We can replace eyes. We can fix gut microbiomes. We can put spacers in centrifugal gravity stations so they give birth without complications. We can handle zero-g traumatic injuries with enough training and dedicated equipment. We can, broadly speaking, alleviate the murderous desires of space.

Or can we? What Vangelis discovered in his investigations is that spacers...actually spend quite a lot of time on solid, Earth-like ground! In average, a spacer spends three months a year in the environment of a terrestrial garden world, and those who don't tend to live in massive centrifugal gravity stations that emulate such environments. Spacers who never come back to a planet-like environment, now, that's another issue. Focusing on this cohort paints a much bleaker picture -- because modern medicine can only do so much. It can't repair multiple failing organs at once. It can't rewire neurons. It can't support weakened hearts for a century. Even implants can't do much when they themselves are getting tumours. That's why most deep space travellers either take frequent stops on uninhabited Earth-likes, or are artificial intelligences, unconstrained by human bodies.

We don't live in space, concludes Vangelis, not really. We live alongside it. Because while it's beautiful and full of wonders, it still wants to kill us.

Art made for Starmoth by Garnouille. 

Space Piracy

Space piracy exists in a strange -- if somewhat amusing -- conceptual limbo: if most analysts agree on the fact that it does exist, very few can give a unified, consensual definition of it. While communal legal codes define notion such as "unlawful appropriation of cargo" or "craft hijacking", they do not have a clear concept of piracy in space.

One thing is certain, however. The stereotypical pirate, preying on cargo ships from their asteroid hideout, boarding innocent vessels, stealing their AI and plundering their riches does not exist in any realistic capacity. The very nature of geometry drive FTL travel makes interception an extremely complex affair and there is little economic case for such a practice of piracy, considering the risks of triggering an overwhelming response from the powers that be. It doesn't mean unlawful endeavours carried out with ships are unheard of.

A working definition of piracy could be elaborated by considering the three main elements that are required (yet not sufficient) for proper space pirates to exist:

  • A lightly or un-policed space with enough of an economy to allow for valuables to be carried in and out of the system (said valuable can be goods, persons or information.)
  • Organized groups or polities with the equipment, inclination and geographical presence to coerce civilian ships into giving in to their (often monetary) demands.
  • A local context, be it political or ideological, that leads the would-be pirates to seek for subsistence and wealth through violent means. 
  • A widely accepted -- regional or interstellar -- perception of the aforementioned actions as unlawful and falling under the definition of piracy. 

One may see an immediate problem with this definition: it is recursive. A pirate is first and foremost defined by the fact that the rest of human space sees them as such. This is the most crucial aspect of what it means to be a space pirate: perception. In regions like Smyrnia-Silesia or Tyra, there is a continuum between organized protection rackets and legitimate proto-states; many self-proclaimed Smyrnian pirates, like the infamous Solovyovan Recyclers, started as the former and ended up as the latter, transforming their racket into a system of trade taxes and organized fleets, often used to protect merchants against the racketeers they used to be. As the regions with rampant piracy also tend to be low-intensity warzones, some outside analysts tend to consider that piracy proper doesn't even exist, classifying all piracy-adjacent endeavours as military actions against civilian trade. It is not wholly nonsensical: in anarchic regions there is no such thing as a neutral merchant.

Interstellar Nets

A long-range network sync array on the Interloper, Elora's most distant asteroid moon.

So here's a story. Once upon a time there was something called the Internet. You may understand it as an Earth-wide digital network that linked billions of users and connected computers together for the last part of the industrial era. The Internet was staggeringly complex and remains arguably unsurpassed in scope and scale (remember that, at that time, Earth demographics were at an all-time high and by 2070 the planet had more inhabitants than the entirety of present-day human space). It was so complex, actually, that six hundred years and a Low Age later, its shadow keeps looming over our digital infrastructure. Some of the Internet's elements and design principles were straight-up reused in modern networks, while a few of our modern artificial intelligences coalesced out of Internet remnants.

Modern networks, however, are fractured. They are born of the Low Age and bear the mark of an uncertain, energy-limited time period. An industrial-era time traveller would find our digital infrastructure arcane, impenetrable even. First because a large part of modern shared networks are asynchronous. As the geometry drive does not allow for instant FTL communication, exchanges of information between distant star systems occur at the pace of messenger ships, or net-engines. These small, nimble vessels (often cargo conversions of Inyanga or Simurgh frames) are loaded to the brim with hard drives and fly on regular patterns, only stopping for repairs and refuelling. When they approach a planet, they are pinged by orbital platforms that beam data towards them. These platforms are in turn fed data by automated collecting algorithms that sweep planetary networks to create an archive-snapshot of current sites and repositories. These network images are then carried to other worlds and uploaded using the same system. In average, the "refresh time" of the interstellar net is about one month between Communal Space and the Traverse, while more distant worlds may have to wait for several years to get a snapshot and vice versa. In that regard, the interstellar net is much more comparable to early 19th century communications than the industrial Internet. Planetary networks work in isolation, with regular updates as to the activity of extraplanetary networks arriving in waves with messenger ships. It goes without saying that the physical infrastructure that allows planets to rapidly upload petabytes of data to messenger ships are critical. It is not rare for attacks to focus on the beaming arrays, either through hacking or more direct, unconventional means -- exotic adversarial attacks based on interference with the laser lenses causing false packets of data to be sent are not unheard of!

Planetary networks themselves are rarely unified. The local fragmentation of power between communes, cooperatives and syndicates tends to create a wide variety of standards, infrastructure and file formats, even in relatively unified spaces like Terran networks under the aegis of the USRE or Laniakea. Sifting through this increasingly complex weave of isolated social networks, incompatible websites and different codebases requires dedicated software or quasi-AI assistants. There is a constant back and forth between insularity and the unified force of open source endeavours, of which the Biblioteca operating system is a great example. On large planets such as the Earth or Elora, this dynamic is slowly starting to favour unified networks, while the opposite is true on politically scattered worlds such as Smyrnia-Silesia.

The two aforementioned aspects mean that interstellar networks are more similar to the early than late Internet. Social media mostly exists under the shape of forums and boards, that suffer less from asynchronous data transfer than more immediate communication structures, and the most popular massively multiplayer games are real-time space sims where travel times are measured in weeks, even months. 

Our industrial-era time traveller would also be surprised by the extent to which modern digital networks rely on physical media. While hands-free interfaces using augmented reality contact lenses or glasses are very common, modern humans are historically wary of wireless transmission. Though this is mostly a cultural artefact from the Low Age, there are a few good reasons to prefer wired connections and hard drives over cloud storage and wireless exchanges. On politically chaotic worlds, the wireless environments of densely populated areas are packed with data snoopers, self-sustaining viruses and a variety of logic bombs that make confidential wired data transfer vastly more reliable. Furthermore, many planets are subject to geomagnetic conditions that make wireless and cloud storage unreliable -- even on Elora, powerful magnetic storms can knock down worldwide networks several hours or days at a time. Thus, it is not surprising to see people relying on hard drives, flash storage keys and even the odd cassette tapes -- those are very resilient and, while slower than other kinds of storage, can carry massive amounts of data.

Illustration by Jaime Guerrero for Eclipse Phase, distributed by Posthuman Studios under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-alike 3.0 Unported License.

Talasea's Lessons: Uphill and Downhill

This article was written by navigator Tali Talasea. All temperatures given in degrees Celsius.

It is often said that geometry drives cannot be used deep in a planetary or stellar gravity well, but the "why" is rarely touched upon. Allow me to cast some light on it.

In reality, it is not impossible to use a geometry drive in a gravity well. As long as both the disintegration and reintegration points are outside of the atmosphere, technically the drive should be able to work. However, the immense majority of modern drives will spit out errors, generally either a generic code 001 "translation failed due to wrong parameters" or a more specific 0011 "translation failed due to projected compensation outside of acceptable range."

So what does it all mean? See, while the geometry drive remains a paracausal device, conservation of energy still applies to it. When a ship translates "uphill" or "downhill" a gravity well, its potential energy is affected. Moving "uphill" means an increase in potential energy, while moving "downhill" means a decrease. Because conservation of energy applies, this difference has to go somewhere. The modification in potential energy is given by the following formula:

DU = -(m*g*DH) where DU is the change in energy in Joules, m the mass of the translated ship, g the acceleration due to gravity and DH the change in altitude related to the surface of the object considered.

Another formula allows to convert this difference into heat. If a ship was to drop from geostationary orbit to a low planetary orbit in a single translation, it would accumulate enough heat to melt on the spot -- and the crew would be killed instantly. If on the contrary a ship was to do the opposite journey, its temperature would drop to several minus thousand degrees, also killing the crew. However, the ship might survive...or would it? Remember, the absolute zero is at -273 degrees and counting, so the residual energy would have to go elsewhere. "Elsewhere" means the drive, which would shatter and become unusable.

This is why flight computers, by default, forbid "uphill" and "downhill" translations in deep gravity wells. The setting can be deactivated, but I strongly recommend to keep it on. Note that, unlike the built-in matter reintegration safety, it only relies on pre-established knowledge of the environment: thus, it is possible to drop deep inside a gravity well during a blind jump. This is part of the reason why explorers always translate right outside an unknown system for their first contact.

Of course, you'll notice that even in deep space, you're always under the gravitational influence of a multitude of objects, but their effect is negligible and thus will not create significant temperature changes. Dropping a bit too close to a planet (we call this "shaving") might heat the ship up slightly, but nothing dangerous.

Two additional notes for the keenest students:

-- Yes, it is technically possible to create an infinite energy machine by having a ship translate uphill with exactly the right parameters, but they are so constrained that said machine will be extremely, extremely pitiful.

-- And yes, it is also possible to cool down a cargo by translating "uphill" for just the right amount of energy difference (let's say -20°C). This is a relatively widespread if a bit unconventional method for flash-freezing sensitive cargo.

I thank Winchell Chung of the Atomic Rockets website for the formula.

Talasea was illustrated by ElenaFeArt as a commission for Starmoth.

Laser Grids

Laser grids are nigh-ubiquitous spaceship equipment that have been in use since the early days of the interplanetary era. Much like most personal laser equipment such as the stylus, they are first and foremost utilitarian tools that also double as weapons.

Civilian laser grids take the shape of small clusters of laser emitters installed at the prow, stern, starboard and port sides of the ship so that they provide all-aspect coverage at all times. Their main purpose is to protect their ship from micrometeorites and space debris by emitting in short bursts capable of vaporizing impactors that have been deemed a threat by on-board sensors. Though a ship threatened by large (>5 meters) debris will often use evasive action, civilian laser grids can also fire in longer bursts to partially melt impactors and force them to change course. On modern vessel, laser emitters can be furthered clustered to provide a single, maximum intensity burst that is used for surface mining or wreck reclamation. The wavelengths of civilian laser grids are fine-tuned to provide the best balance between potential health hazards and power conservation, with most of them including software safeties preventing the bursts from being maintained for too long. Under common spacefaring regulations, a spaceship using its laser grid is legally obliged to broadcast a specific warning signal. Virtual reality interfaces for helmets and open cockpits always display the area within which laser grids are being used in bright coloured circles. When a ship with active laser grids travels through a thick dust cloud or debris ring, the constant bursts from its emitters accompanied by melting debris create a striking visual effect, as if the vessel was equipped with some kind of energy field.

Civilian grids can be mounted on very small frames, the tiniest of which are laser-djinns, small drones that roam around civilian installations and remove debris or stray asteroid fragments on their own.

Military laser grids are greatly upscaled versions of civilian ones, with all software safeties removed and much stronger lenses. Installed on gimballed turrets, they can be used in a defensive or offensive role. As a defensive tool, they are geared towards firing rate and gimballing speed. Against a single missile, laser grids will try to melt through its outer armour to make its engines detonate. Against a saturation attack, however, each emitter will focus on a single missile, aiming not for destruction but for disruption, blinding sensors, melting RCS thrusters and communication arrays. When the laser grid goes on the offensive, it switches to long, high-intensity and focalized bursts in order to ravage external ship structures -- radiators in particular are a prime target for laser grids. The smallest emitters can also be used as sensor blinders in very close range engagements. Military grids operate at much higher intensities and wavelengths than civilian ones, and can be outright deadly for drones or EVA personnel if used in a debris protection role. In Eloran and Terran space, military vessels are legally obliged to either carry a secondary civilian grid, or be accompanied by a support vessel when entering planetary orbit or high-traffic areas.

Laser grids are all but useless when going against Sequence vessels, as they do not use missiles and have thick organic hulls that regenerate faster than a laser grid can melt them. Anti-Sequence vessels will typically remove their grids before combat, either to focus on FTL performance or make room for a UREB mount.

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